Application Information

FM256 Application Examples - Page 1
Double Speed surveys over a Roman Fort and an Iron-age enclosure. Detection depth with a 0.5m gradiometer.

FM256 Application Examples - Page 2

Double Speed, Single Instrument and high resolution surveys in Shetland done on behalf of the Old Scatness Broch and Jarlshof Environs Project and Shetland Amenity Trust.

MPX15 Application Example

English Heritage Guidelines

Regardless of which instrumentation you use, all geophysics practitioners should read the updated English Heritage guide entitled "Geophysical Survey in Archaeological Field Evaluation, 2nd Edition", 2008. This document provides basic guidelines and discussion of good practice in archaeological geophysics in the UK. There are four parts :
Part I:  Standards for Geophysical Survey.
Part II:  Geophysical Survey and Planning.
Part III:  Guide to Choice of Methods.
Part IV:  Practitioner's Guide to Good Practice.
A PDF copy of the guide is available for download from English Heritage

EAC Guidelines for the Use of Geophysics in Archaeology

The European Archaeological Council (EAC) guideline regarding the use of geophysics in archaeology (questions to ask and points to consider) are available online as the second in their series of Guidelines

Archaeological Prospection Journal

Archaeological Prospection, published by Wiley, is an interdisciplinary journal, focusing on the practice and interpretation of a wide range of scientific techniques applied to archaeological sites. It promotes collaborative research between archaeologists and practitioners of prospection techniques, with a view to improving the reliability of archaeological interpretations based on these techniques.

The journal aims to encourage international discussion of field procedures, data presentation and interpretation of a wide range of prospection techniques, and  promote multi-technique comparison, thus enhancing scientific collaboration.

Members of International Society for Archaeological Prospection (see below) are able to subscribe to the journal, in print form, at a greatly reduced subscription rate, currently 80 per year at the time of writing. Similarly, IFA members can get the journal for 90.

Revealing The Buried Past - Geophysics for Archaeologists

This excellent new book provides an up to date introduction to the background and modern practice of geophysics on archaeological sites. It describes a wide range of techniques, instruments, survey logistics and analysis, with extensive example surveys and case studies, many of which were made with our gradiometer and resistance systems. It can be purchased through your local bookseller or from Oxbow Books.
Gaffney, C., Gater, G. (2003). Revealing the Buried Past - Geophysics for Archaeologists. Oxbow Books. ISBN-13: 978-1-84868-421-8

Seeing Beneath the Soil

Tony Clark's "Seeing Beneath the Soil" is a useful non-technical introduction to a wide range of geophysical techniques, especially valuable for those new to the subject. It can be purchased through your local bookseller.
Clark, A.J. (1990). Seeing Beneath the Soil : Prospecting methods in Archaeology. Batsford. It is now published in paperback form by Routledge: ISBN 0 415 21440 8.

Geophysical Data in Archaeology - A Guide to Good Practice 2nd Ed.

This guide, produced by  AHDS, is concerned with the variety of data that may be collected during geophysical surveys and how to ensure that they may be preserved in digital formats for future re-use. It considers the accurate documentation of data, their collection and subsequent management procedures.

Schmidt, A. (2013). ISBN 978-1-78297-144-3. Available from Oxbow Books (Telephone : 01865-21249) or : http:/ and David Brown Book Company in the USA (Phone 860-945-9329)

Magnetometry for Archaeologists

Excellent reference book that covers: concepts, magnetometer types, magnetic anomalies and sources of noise, data collection (problems and solutions), processing and display, interpretation.

Aspinall, A., Gaffney, C., Schmidt, A. (2008). Magnetometry for Archaeologists. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-1106-6

Earth Resistance for Archaeologists

Another excellent reference book with chapters on: Electrical Currents in the Ground, Results from the Homogenous Ground, The Electrical Signatures of Features in the Ground, Resistivity Imaging, Implications for Field Practice, Data Treatment, Case Studies and Data Interpretation.

Schmidt, A. (2013). Earth Resistance for Archaeologists. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-1204-9.

Useful Links (alphabetical order)

Archaeological Prospection Reports and the Survey Database by the Ancient Monuments Lab (AML).

Archaeological Prospection Resources by the Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford.

Archaeo-Physics provides many examples of surveys made in the USA with our equipment. It also gives a good introduction to survey methodology and logistics appropriate to surveying in the USA.

Kerkenes Project in Turkey which shows the results of some very large scale gradiometer surveys made using the FM36 and ST1.

Time Team, broadcast on UK TV Channel 4, shows a variety of geophysical instruments in action including our MSP40, FM256, FM36, RM15, MPX15 and Geoplot.

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